Salzburg und Umgebungsorte, Salzburgerland
Salzburg (pronounced Soizbuag in the Bavarian-Austrian dialect) (lat. Salisburgum) is the capital of the province of the same name in the Republic of Austria. With 155,416 inhabitants it is the fourth largest city in Austria after Vienna, Graz and Linz. It is located in the Salzburg Basin. Characteristic for the city are the city mountains, the Salzach River flowing through the city area and the fortress Hohensalzburg, visible from afar. The northwest of the statutory city of Salzburg borders on Freilassing in the Federal Republic of Germany (Free State of Bavaria, Berchtesgadener Land district), the rest of the city area borders on the Salzburg-Umgebung district, commonly called "Flachgau".
In 488, the decline of the Roman city of Iuvavum began at the same location. Salzburg was refounded as a bishop's see in 696 and became the seat of the archbishop in 798. Salzburg's main sources of income were salt extraction and trade, and at times gold mining. The core of Hohensalzburg Fortress dates back to the 11th century. It is one of the largest medieval fortresses in Europe and a landmark of the city. From the 17th century, the city was splendidly furnished by Archbishop Wolf Dietrich and his successors as a residential city. At this time, Hellbrunn Palace was also built in the south of the city, including the palace park, water features and avenues. The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who was born here in 1756, is considered to be the most famous Salzburger, which is why the city bears the epithet "Mozartstadt" and the airport the name "Salzburg Airport W. A. Mozart". The historic center of the city has been on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1996.
Today, Salzburg is an important trade fair and congress location with many trade and service businesses as well as an efficient tourism sector. In addition, the city is internationally significant due to the Salzburg Festival, which earned it the further nickname "Festival City". Due to its convenient location, the city of Salzburg forms the core of the cross-border "EuRegio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein". It is also a junction for important road and rail routes in west-east traffic (Innsbruck-Salzburg-Vienna) as well as transalpine or north-south (Munich-Salzburg-Villach).